An Overview of Misspelled Trademarks & Trademark Registration

Navigating Trademark Laws for Misspelled Trademarks

The realm of trademark law often presents a unique challenge when dealing with misspelled words. For entrepreneurs and business owners, understanding how these misspellings are treated can be pivotal in developing a brand that is both distinctive and legally protectable. The US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) applies the doctrine of equivalents to misspelled words in trademark applications, impacting how trademarks are evaluated at both federal and state levels.

The Doctrine of Equivalents and Federal Trademark Registration

At the federal level, the USPTO operates under the Lanham Act, which governs trademarks, service marks, and unfair competition. The doctrine of equivalents stipulates that misspelled terms phonetically equivalent to a descriptive or generic term are often ineligible for trademark registration. This policy aims to ensure that trademarks are sufficiently distinctive to avoid confusion and maintain clarity in the marketplace.

The doctrine of equivalents centers around the treatment of misspelled words in trademark applications. According to this doctrine, if a term is misspelled but still phonetically equivalent to a descriptive or generic term, it cannot be registered as a trademark. The underlying principle is straightforward: simply misspelling a word does not inherently make it distinctive enough to qualify as a trademark.

The Descriptive Nature of Misspelled Words

Under trademark law, particularly as interpreted by the USPTO, if the phonetic equivalent of a misspelled word is a correctly spelled descriptive term, the misspelled term is also typically deemed descriptive. This interpretation stems from the principle that the general public is likely to perceive such a misspelled term as simply a variant of the common, descriptive word.

For instance, if a business uses “Froot” in place of “Fruit” for a fruit-selling business, the term is likely to be deemed descriptive despite the creative spelling. This is because the altered spelling does not significantly change the term’s commercial impression as being descriptive of the characteristics or qualities of the goods or services offered.

Registerability of Arbitrary, Fanciful, or Suggestive Misspellings

On the other hand, if a misspelled word falls into the category of being arbitrary, fanciful, or suggestive, it stands a better chance of being registered. This is contingent on the condition that the examining attorney finds no other grounds for refusal, such as likelihood of confusion with an existing trademark, association with a surname, or being geographically descriptive.

For example, a creatively misspelled term that bears no logical relationship to the product or service it represents, or suggests a quality or characteristic in a non-obvious way, may be deemed sufficiently distinctive. This distinctiveness arises from the term’s ability to stand out as a source identifier in the minds of consumers, rather than merely describing the product or service.

Distinctiveness – The Keystone of Trademark Law: Distinctiveness is the linchpin in trademark law. Federal registration demands that a trademark be distinctive either inherently or through acquired distinctiveness, known as secondary meaning. Trademarks are categorized as generic, descriptive, suggestive, arbitrary, or fanciful. The latter three categories typically qualify for trademark protection due to their inherent distinctiveness. However, if a misspelling doesn’t sufficiently alter a term’s commercial impression, it remains merely descriptive.

State Trademark Laws and Misspellings: State trademark registrations, while varying slightly across states, generally follow the principles set out by federal law. Most states require that a mark be distinctive to be registered. Thus, the same principles regarding the doctrine of equivalents apply. However, state-level registrations might offer some leeway in cases where federal registration is not granted, provided the mark is used exclusively within that state.

Strategic Branding and Legal Considerations

In light of these nuances, businesses must strategically approach their branding and trademark decisions. A balance needs to be struck between creative branding and legal protectability. A misspelled term that is too closely aligned with a descriptive term might fail to qualify for trademark protection. However, inventive spellings that impart a unique, memorable identity to the brand, without falling into the traps of common refusals, can be successful.

Implications of the Doctrine on Business Branding

For business owners, this doctrine implies that creatively misspelling a generic or descriptive term is unlikely to clear the hurdle of trademark registration. For instance, using “Kwik” instead of “Quick” for a fast-service business might still be seen as descriptive. This is particularly relevant in industries where descriptive terms are commonly used to indicate the nature of the goods or services.

However, this doesn’t mean that all creative spellings are off the table. If a misspelled term creates a new meaning or impression, unrelated to the descriptiveness of the original term, it might be considered distinctive. This distinction is often nuanced and subject to the interpretation of the USPTO’s examining attorneys.

Case Studies and Examples

Practical examples in the business world show varied outcomes. For instance, a company using a slightly misspelled version of a descriptive term might face hurdles in trademark registration if the term’s commercial impression remains unchanged. Contrarily, unique or unexpected misspellings that create a distinct commercial impression may be more likely to receive trademark rights and trademark benefits.


The doctrine of equivalents is a testament to the complexity and detail-oriented nature of trademark law. Entrepreneurs and business owners must approach trademark creation with a keen understanding of these nuances. Consulting with a trademark attorney to navigate these intricate details can be invaluable. Remember, a trademark is not just a legal tool; it’s a fundamental aspect of your brand’s identity and market position.

If you are seeking to determine whether your misspelled trademark is available for use and can be registered, we can assist! We invite you to contact our law firm to see how our attorney may assist with your trademark matter.